Sutcliffe Research Group
Sutcliffe Research Group

MANDRAKE Research Articles

Instant Detection of Synthetic Cannabinoids on Physical Matrices, Implemented on a Low-Cost, Ultraportable Device, GE Cozier, RC Andrews, A Frinculescu, R Kumar, B May, T Tooth, P Collins, A Costello, TSF Haines, TP Freeman, IS Blagrough, J Scott, T Shine, OB Sutcliffe, SM Husbands, J Leach, RW Bowman and CR Pudney, Analytical Chemistry (2023) DOI: (published online 29/08/2023).


Synthesis, characterisation and quantification of the new psychoactive substance 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(propylamino)butan-1-one (bk-PBDB, putylone), DI Dixon, MF Millea, ATM Wilcock, A Costello, JR Ellison, S Lord, KA O’Brien, RE Mewis and OB Sutcliffe, Forensic Chemistry (2023) DOI: (published online 10/08/2023).


Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists are Monoamine Oxidase-A Selective Inhibitors, SA Hindson, R Andrews, MJ Danson, MW van der Kamp, AE Manley, OB Sutcliffe, TSF Haines, T Freeman, J Scott, S Husbands, I Blagborough, JL Ross Anderson, D Carbery and C Pudney, The FEBS Journal (2023) DOI: (published online: 28/01/2023)


Photochemical fingerprinting is a sensitive probe for the detection of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists; towards robust point-of-care detection, R Andrews, B May, FJ Hernández, GE Cozier, P Townsend, OB Sutcliffe, T Haines, T Freeman, J Scott, S Husbands, I Blagborough, R Bowman, S Lewis, M Grayson, R Crespo-Otero, D Carbery and C Pudney, Analytical Chemistry (2023), 95 (2), 703–713.


Comparative study of the analysis of seized samples by GC-MS, 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy within a Night-Time Economy (NTE) setting, DI Dixon, LH Antonides, A Costello, B Crane, A Embleton, ML Fletcher, N Gilbert, MC Hulme, MJ James, MA Lever, CJ Maccallum, MF Millea, JL Pimlott, TBR Robertson, NE Rudge, CJ Schofield, F Zukowicz, EK Kemsley, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2022), 219, 114950.


Guilty by Dissociation: Part B: Evaluation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC-UV) for the analysis of regioisomeric diphenidine-derived Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS). G Cochrane, JK Field, MC Hulme, N Gilbert, RE Mewis, MR Euerby and OB Sutcliffe, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2022), 216, 114797.


Guilty by Dissociation: Part A: Development of a rapid Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC)-MS/MS methodology for the analysis of regioisomeric diphenidine-derived Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), JK Field, C Hinz, CM Titman, MC Hulme, RM Cowan, JB Ainsworth-McMillan, N Gilbert, RJ Lee, J Marron, A Costello, RE Mewis, MR Euerby and OB Sutcliffe, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2022), 216, 114798.


Lab-on-a-Chip approaches for the detection of controlled drugs, including new psychoactive substances: A systematic review, L McNeill, D Megson, PE Linton, J Norrey, L Bradley, OB Sutcliffe and KJ Shaw, Forensic Chemistry (2021), 26, 100370.

Synthesis, characterisation, detection and quantification of a novel hexyl-substituted synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist: (S)-N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-hexyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-HINACA), N Gilbert, A Costello, JR Ellison, U Khan, M Knight, MJ Linnell, R Ralphs, RE Mewis and OB Sutcliffe, Forensic Chemistry (2021), 26, 100354

The impact of the 2016 Psychoactive Substances Act on synthetic cannabinoid use within the homeless population: Markets, content and user harms, R Ralphs, P Gray and OB Sutcliffe, International J. Drug Policy (2021), 97, 103305.


Hyperpolarisation of Mirfentanil by SABRE in the presence of heroin, TBR Robertson, N Gilbert, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, ChemPhysChem (2021), 22, 1059.


Detection, discrimination and quantification of amphetamine, cathinone and nor-ephedrine regioisomers using benchtop 1H- and 19F-NMR spectroscopy, MC Hulme, A Hayatbaksh, RM Brignall, N Gilbert, A Costello, CJ Schofield, DC Willamson, EK Kemsley, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, Magn Reson Chem.  (2021), 1-10.


Fast & Fluorinated – Development and validation of a rapid benchtop NMR approach and other routine screening methods for the detection and quantification of synthesised fluorofentanyl derivatives, N Gilbert, RE Mewis and OB Sutcliffe, Forensic Chemistry (2021), 23, 100321.


Origami Chips: Development and validation of a paper-based Lab-on-a-Chip device for the rapid and cost-effective detection of 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) and its metabolite, 4-methylephedrine in urine, L McNeill, C Pearson, D Megson, J Norrey, D Watson, D Ashworth, PE Linton, OB Sutcliffe and KJ Shaw, Forensic Chemistry (2021), 22, 100293.


Classification of fentanyl analogues through principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering of GC–MS data, N Gilbert, RE Mewis and OB Sutcliffe, Forensic Chemistry (2020), 21, 100287.


Quantification of MDMA in seized tablets using benchtop 1H NMR spectroscopy in the absence of internal standards, JH Hussain, N Gilbert, A Costello, CJ Schofield, EK Kemsley, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, Forensic Chemistry (2020), 20, 100263.


Hitting the Jackpot - Development of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and other rapid screening methods for the analysis of 18 fentanyl-derived synthetic opioids, N Gilbert, LH Antonides, CJ Schofield, A Costello, B Kilkelly, AR Cain, PRV Dalziel, K Horner, RE Mewis and OB Sutcliffe, Drug Testing and Analysis (2020), 12, 798-811.


Benchtop NMR analysis of piperazine-based drugs hyperpolarised by SABRE, T Tennant, MC Hulme, TBR Robertson, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry (2020), 1–9.


Hyperpolarisation of pyridyl fentalogues by Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE), TBR Robertson, LH Antonides, N Gilbert, SL Benjamin, SK Langley, LJ Munro, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, ChemistryOpen (2019), 8, 1375-1382.


Quick test for the determination of N-Bombs (phenethylamine derivatives, NBOMe) using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: A comparison between photodiode array and amperometric detection, HM Elbardisy, CW Foster, J Marron, RE Mewis, OB Sutcliffe, TS Belal, W Talaat, HG Daabees and CE Banks, ACS Omega (2019), 4 (11), 14439-14450.

Rapid Detection and Quantification of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, H Muhamadali, A Watt, Y Xu, M Chisanga, A Subaihi, C Jones, DI Ellis, OB Sutcliffe and R Goodacre, Front. Chem. (2019), 7, 412.


Enantiospecific Synthesis, Chiral Separation, and Biological Activity of Four Indazole-3-Carboxamide-Type Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Their Detection in Seized Drug Samples, LH Antonides, A Cannaert, C Norman, L Vives, A Harrison, A Costello, N Nic Daeid, CP Stove, OB Sutcliffe and C McKenzie, Front. Chem. (2019), 7, 321. 


Rapid Identification of Novel Psychoactive and Other Controlled Substances Using Low-Field 1H NMR Spectroscopy, LH Antonides, RM Brignall, A Costello, J Ellison, SE Firth, N Gilbert, BJ Groom, SJ Hudson, MC Hulme, J Marron, ZA Pullen, TBR Robertson, CJ Schofield, DC Williamson, EK Kemsley, OB Sutcliffe and RE Mewis, ACS Omega (2019), 4 (4), 7103-7112.


Analytical determination of heroin, fentanyl and fentalogues using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and amperometric detection, Hadil M. Elbardisy, CW Foster, L Cumba, LH Antonides, N Gilbert, CJ Schofield, TS Belal, W Talaat, OB Sutcliffe, HG Daabees and CE Banks, Analytical Methods (2019), 11, 1053-1063.


Forensic Electrochemistry: The Electroanalytical Sensing of Mephedrone Metabolites, HM Elbardisy, A García-Miranda Ferrari, CW Foster, OB Sutcliffe, DAC Brownson, TS Belal, W Talaat, HG Daabees and CE Banks, ACS Omega (2019), 4 (1), 1947–1954.


Engineering molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective extraction and quantification of the novel psychoactive substance (NPS) methoxphenidine and its regioisomers, JW Lowdon, SMO Alkirkit, RE Mewis, DA Fulton, CE Banks, OB Sutcliffe and M Peeters, Analyst (2018), 143, 2002-2007.


Chemical synthesis, characterisation and in vitro and in vivo metabolism of the synthetic opioid MT-45 and its newly identified fluorinated analogue 2F-MT-45 with metabolite confirmation in urine samples from known drug users, C McKenzie, OB Sutcliffe, KD Read, P Scullion, O Epemolu, D Fletcher, A Helander, O Beck, A Rylski, LH Antonides, J Riley, SA Smith and N Nic Daeid, Forensic Toxicology (2018), 36 (2), 359-374.


Chromatographic retention behaviour, modelling and optimization of a UHPLC-UV separation of the regioisomers of the Novel Psychoactive Substance (NPS) methoxphenidine (MXP), BO Boateng, M Fever, D Edwards, P Petersson, MR Euerby and OB Sutcliffe, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2018), 153, 238-247.

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